New clue to the origin of anxiety

Researchers have located a molecule that serves as a messenger between two key areas of the brain in the genesis of fear.

Fear is a constant in the lives of people suffering from anxiety. And in times of intense stress can reach significantly limit their daily lives. A team of researchers at Cold Spring Harbor believe they have identified in mice hitherto unknown route that controls fear and can give clues to how may arise anxiety disorders. In particular they have located a molecule that serves as a messenger between two key brain areas important in the genesis of fear.

It has long been known that fear has its headquarters in a brain structure called the amygdala, but it was unclear what controls this structure. Suspicion fell on a group of neurons that form the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT). This group of neurons is related to other brain structures involved in the regulation of motivation and mood, showing abnormal functioning in several psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, substance abuse or depression.

These structures are the amygdala itself, the nucleus accumbens, which is part of the reward system, and the anterior cingulate cortex, which plays an important role in the processing of negative emotions. In addition, the PVT is directly connected to the hypothalamus, a key structure to implement chronic stress responses and addiction.

With all these tracks researchers at Cold Spring Harbor found that the paraventricular nucleus is specifically activated when the mice learn to fear something or remember scary situations. Their findings are published in Nature. The researchers found that PVT neurons extend deep into the central amygdala, which regulates fear. And when this connection between the thalamus and amygdala PVT is interrupted, fear learning is more difficult.

Furthermore they used people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to try to identify possible chemical messengers that could connect the two structures (PVT and amygdala). They focused on a molecule called BDNF that has been implicated in anxiety disorders. It is a nerve growth factor that plays an important role in the birth of new neurons and new connections between neurons and whose synthesis is enhanced with exercise. Patients with anxiety disorders often have mutations in this chemical messenger, BDNF, suggesting that it may have an important role in memory and learning of fear.

They saw that adding BDNF in the central amygdala of rodents triggers a fear response in mice that have not been previously exposed to a stimulus that causes fear and promotes the formation lasting memories about the feared situation. The scientists have established that regulatory circuit controls fear in mice. And the BDNF is the chemical messenger that allows the thalamus PVT exercise control over the central amygdala.

So far they have only seen in rodents, but extrapolation of the great importance of this route for the control of fear in humans remains to be seen. It is possible that things are not so simple in primates and humans in particular, and not rely simply a connection between two brain structures. This finding, in particular the role of BDNF, may explain why exercise is a good antidepressant and helps reduce anxiety and stress.

Working at night hurts the body

 work at nightHuman being has daytime nature. Therefore, work or permanently evening activities can affect your body and even make it more prone to diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

A study by researchers from China with more than 200,000 participants concluded that the chances of night workers to suffer from diabetes increase by 9 percent.

Apparently, people sleeping in the next day permanently develop the early stages of type 2 diabetes, so special attention to their health is recommended. Hormones communicate with the body organs and systems to fulfill their functions. On the day, the energy, cardiopulmonary, renal and skeletal systems of human being are active in night cycle changes. The body rests and their caloric requirements are lower. Therefore, the inverse shifts can give rise to a breach of the entire human physiology, when it is an obligation may go through two phases: acute and chronic. In the acute phase our hormones and cycles are stressed because they are used to having more energy during the day and not at night. In the chronic phase, many people manage to adapt, as a way of survival, a kind of transformation of their biological clock.

There are human beings who cannot adapt and are exposed to more problems such as cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes or obesity. It does not mean that all people who work or study at night have diseases – in many cases predisposing factors are necessary. Beyond physical health, night hours can also cause irritability and difficult social relations become almost isolated. In addition to the warning with diabetes and obesity other important studies have shown increased frequency of breast cancer for women with intense night work schedules. It also increases the possibility of myocardial accidents.

Altered metabolism with basic substances for some processes can vary its central role and provoke errors in the reconstruction of cells when they do not work as they should. The body is constantly making cells in the hair, skin and bones. When that process is altered – there is risk of errors that can lead to disease.

Any changes in weight are due to metabolic imbalance. In the night activity organism stores more fat because he feels that works harder and needs more energy reserves.

Consciously or unconsciously, the person eats at night to try to stay awake. The day may have more hunger and increase the size of the portions you eat, adding to the probable fact that your metabolism to much slower.

Diagnosis and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

With the widespread introduction of the urology practice of ultrasound, MSCT and MRI growing incidence of kidney tumors, and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and due to the high resolution of these techniques, this increase is largely due to the early detection of asymptomatic disease.

In our opinion, the synchronous detection of kidney tumors and BPH is preferable initially to perform surgery for the tumor.

Thus, timely preoperative diagnosis and determination of rational treatment tactics in patients with renal tumor in combination with BPH has a significant influence on the postoperative period and can prevent the development of complications.

Integrated approach, based on an assessment of the severity of the clinical manifestations of each of these diseases and laboratory and instrumental examination, can contribute not only to improve the results of treatment of kidney tumors, but also lead to dramatic improvements in quality of life is largely due to the successful treatment of prostatic adenoma.

Tamsulosin is the most prescribed α-adrenergic-antagonist in US, which is associated with excellent value for efficacy and safety.

Characteristic features of rheumatoid arthritis

It is also called rheumatism. The disease is chronic in nature. Rheumatism is a disease from the group of rheumatic diseases. The disease involves inflammation of the joints with complications. There are periods when the disease relapse and exacerbation of symptoms is observed. The disease is in some sense an attack man in his own body. While the disease is thickening of the synovial membrane of joints and destruction of cartilage in the joints occurs.

RAThis disease is more common in women than in men. RA can lead to changes in the systems of the body, disability. The initial symptom is morning stiffness guest joints and bones under the influence of transient traffic. The disease most often begins arthritis metacarpal – phalangeal in the hands and feet. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease lasting more frequent or less frequent with relapses. It relates to systems of the body. It is a disease of the origin is not known. RA is a disease of the connective tissue. During inflammation disease arises in the entire human body, the internal organs as the lungs, kidneys, heart, blood vessels.

At the time the disease is present in human muscle atrophy if not prevented disease through exercise, physical therapy, pharmacological agents. During the synovium of joint disease grows in an uncontrolled way, in a further step there is infiltration of inflammatory cells. In a further stage of the disease is the ability to cut off supply of nutrients from synovial fluid into the body, and are released into lysosomes or human digestive enzymes damaging the cartilage and bone. This leads to problems with movement.

During the treatment of the disease should be reached to eliminate or reduce the symptoms of the disease. Doctors treating a patient trying to do everything to joint destruction process proceeded slowly. The goal is that the patient can move normally, he was not disabled and able to function normally and was even able to work. It is important for proper treatment of the symptoms of human rheumatoid arthritis. It should recognize the disease as early as possible because it decides to continue the proceedings, the course of the disease and its side effects for the body.

Rheumatoid arthritis has a very large impact on the quality of life for her mentally ill people because it creates a certain level of mobility problems and can lead to disability. Regular medical examination of patients with RA are designed to improve diagnosis, diagnosis zz the other hand, fit the appropriate medication for the patient. Patients with RA are feeling bad weather changes, humidity, cold, because then the pain symptoms are growing.

The characteristic features of RA

Characteristics is rheumatoid arthritis synovitis, symmetrical inflammation of multiple joints, cartilage, and bone building the pond and other tissues, extra-articular symptoms, general symptoms such as excessive fatigue, fevers, weight loss. The disease two to three times more common in women than in men, especially during puberty, childbirth and menopause.


Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease, not cured completely, inflammatory, immunologically dependent. It is a connective tissue disease that causes inflammatory, symmetric arthritis, including extra-articular changes and the occurrence of systemic complications. This can result in the patient’s disability, disability and even early death.

Related links:

Meloxicam for RA
Rheumatoid arthritis

Hypertension Classification

Hypertension is called the high blood pressure in the vascular system, where the amount of pressure is above 140 mmHg in systolic and / or greater than 90 mmHg in diastolic BP. Incidence hypertension increases with age. In younger people it is usually the cause of hypertension, other diseases (so-called secondary hypertension). For people in the middle and older age did not manage to find an obvious cause of hypertension – this is called idiopathic hypertension. Systolic blood pressure is the value specified as the first when measuring blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure – the value given as the second.

Classification of Hypertension

  1. Optimal blood pressure – below 120/80 mmHg.
  2. Blood pressure correct – 120-129 mmHg (systolic) and / or 80-84 (diastolic).
  3. high normal blood pressure – 130-139 mmHg (systolic) and / or 85-89 mmHg (diastolic).
  4. Hypertension degree – 140-159 mmHg (systolic) and / or 90-99 mmHg (diastolic).
  5. Hypertension second degree – 160-179 mmHg (systolic) and / or 100-109 mmHg (diastolic).
  6. Hypertension third degree – above 180 mmHg (systolic) and / or greater than 110 mmHg (diastolic).

 There are the following types of hypertension, depending on its cause:

Essential hypertension

Essential hypertension is called an idiomatic way, ie without a specific apparent reason. It represents the majority of cases, the disease-than 90%. It is assumed that it is caused by various genetic and environmental factors that interfere with the operation of one or more mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure, such as the RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), a system pressure of hormones that affect the arrangement wspłczulny – part of the nervous system regulates, inter alia, “vaso” or substances produced by the endothelium, such as prostacyclin or NO, or nitric oxide.

Secondary Hypertension

A secondary hypertension occurs when high blood pressure is present on the background of another disease. They should be suspect, especially if it appears at a young age.

Syndrome of “white coat”

It is not a rare situation, which occurs when the blood pressure measurements performed by medical personnel demonstrate its increased value, while the measurements performed by the patient alone in the house are correct. The reason for this is, of course, stress, and not the actual disease.

Risk factors for hypertension

The development of hypertension has a huge impact our lifestyle. Factors that may cause high blood pressure are: overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol abuse. Particularly at risk are people who have abdominal obesity. This is due to the action of hormones that increase the level of fat in the blood. Abdominal obesity affects men and women in the menopause.

In the development of hypertension are important as genetic factors. If someone in the family (mom, dad, grandma or grandpa) have high blood pressure, increases the risk.

Symptoms of hypertension

High blood pressure for a long time may be asymptomatic. Sometimes the only symptom may be a headache.

Significant symptoms occur most often in the case of developing organ damage. In time with the duration of elevated pressure reaches left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, particularly in the carotid arteries, renal and lower limbs, and thereby increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke or renal dysfunction. In the case of secondary hypertension, pressure values ​​are normally very high. The patient may respond poorly to treatment. In hypertension induced adrenal tumor (called a pheochromocytoma, or pheochromocytoma), is characterized by bouts of high pressure with an associated increase in heart rate, facial flushing.

Treatment of hypertension

Treatment of hypertension includes three elements: lifestyle changes, use of antihypertensive (blood pressure lowering) and the modification of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (so as to minimize the risk of complications of hypertension).

Target blood pressure is below 140/90 mmHg with the exception of those with concomitant diabetes and other diseases increase the risk of cardiovascular complications, in which a target value is less than 130/80 mmHg.

Lifestyle modification includes:

  • reduction of body weight to the correct value (BMI 18.5-25 within);
  • not smoking;
  • Mediterranean diet (reducing meat products, fried foods, a large amount of fresh fruits and vegetables, consumption of fish products and olive oil);
  • increasing physical activity – over 30 minutes a day most days of the week (eg, brisk walk);
  • limiting alcohol consumption;
  • reducing sodium intake (salt) to a minimum. Please note; intermediates that most commercially available supplies or exceed the recommended dose of salt where possible, should be so completely eliminate the “Adding salt” foods.

Blood pressure lowering drugs:

  • diuretics, that is, diuretics (such as indapamide, hydrochlorothiazide);
  • Beta-blockers – drugs to lower “voltage” said the sympathetic nervous system (eg carvedilol, nebivolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol);
  • angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) – These drugs lower the pressure, interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system – for example, perindopril, ramipril, losartan, valsartan;
  • calcium channel blockers – reduce the “connection” vessels (e.g., Norvasc).

These drugs can be used either alone (called monotherapy) or in combination. The doctor usually starts from a single treatment of hypertension drug. In patients younger are the most desirable calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor. In the elderly and the elderly, treatment usually begins with the use of diuretics.

Medications should be taken daily, and the treatment lasts for life. Importantly, it is not possible to cure the high blood pressure unless it has a secondary substrate and cure disease, which causes high blood pressure. Only this will bring the desired effects and protect against the development of complications. Medications should be taken at fixed times, as recommended by your doctor. There should be independently reduce or increase the dose of drugs. Often measure blood pressure and record the values ​​in the diary, which then presents a doctor during checkups. If the pressure in spite of the treatment will amount to above 140/90 mmHg, you should consult a doctor quickly to modify the treatment.